Woman Reading a Letter, Johannes Vermeer, c. Add to your set. Johannes Vermeer. Make a print of your favourite detail Download this work and make your own creation Order a ready-made poster of this work. Identification Title s Woman Reading a Letter. Object type painting. Object number SK-C Description Brieflezende vrouw. Artist painter: Johannes Vermeer.
Dating c. Physical features oil on canvas. Material canvas oil paint paint.
Measurements h What letter, envelope reading maps, atlases chair. Credit line On loan from the City of Amsterdam A. Acquisition loan Jun Copyright Public domain. Related Brieflezende vrouw. Vermeer : the life and work of a master , J. Henderson, V. Schiferli Ad fontes! Weber, p.
Woman in Blue (Ruth Galloway Mysteries): Elly Griffiths: cippodofenfi.gq: Books
Weller, p. Liedtke, Arthur K. Wheelock jr. In , a team of scientists decided to study the teeth of a medieval woman who had been buried in Germany sometime between and A. But when they examined the calculus under a microscope, they discovered something entirely surprising: as the plaque dissolved, it released hundreds of tiny blue particles.
In a new study published in Science Advances , the researchers reveal that they have identified the blue pigments as lapis lazuli, a brilliant blue rock that, in the medieval era, was used to color illuminated manuscripts. It is not known precisely when the monastery was founded, but scholars believe that it housed groups of 14 women for several hundred years, until it was destroyed by a fire in the 14th century.
B78 was between 45 and 60 years old when she died, and her remains showed no signs of physical trauma or infection. The discovery of the lapis lazuli pigments, which were identified with such advanced techniques as e nergy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy , marks the first time that a medieval artist has been identified based on skeletal remains, and offers stunning insight into the role that women played in producing illuminated texts. Prior to the 15th century, scribes rarely signed their names on their work—it was a sign of humility, especially for women.
So for many years, historians have assumed that monks, and not nuns, were the primary creators of literary texts.
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But recent research has shown that this was not the case. Nuns copied many of the odd books that survive from the monastery of Admonst in Salzburg, for instance. More than 4, books dating between the 13th and 16th centuries—a period that offers more complete records than the time in which B78 lived—have been attributed to over women scribes. Lapis lazuli, which was used to make ultramarine pigments, was highly valuable in medieval Europe.
It was sourced exclusively from the mines of Afghanistan, as was as expensive as gold, which was also used to decorate illuminated manuscripts. The study authors acknowledge that there are several ways, aside from the deceased woman having been a scribe or painter, that the lapis lazuli could have ended up in her mouth. Among historic Mediterranean and Islamic cultures, lapis lazuli was consumed as a medical treatment, the authors note, though there is little evidence to suggest that this practice existed in medieval Germany.
Kissing painted images of devotional figures was once common in Europe, but is only attested to some three centuries after the woman died. It is also possible that the woman was involved in pigment production, rather than painting. Licking brushes may have been common practice among painters of that time; later artist manuals suggest doing so to make a fine point out of the bristles. And the study also shows how spectroscopic methods can help uncover those hidden stories.
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Woman Reading a Letter, Johannes Vermeer, c. 1663
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